Five Bullet Saturday (4/21/2018)

What I’m Reading: The Chessboard & the Web by Anne-Marie Slaughter

This was an interesting read in juxtaposition to Joshua Cooper Ramo’s The Seventh Sense. Ramo focuses on the power of controlling networks—gatekeeping—and how these powers will largely be centralized and benefit the gatekeepers—Facebook, China, and Airbnb, for example. Slaughter, however, proposes a more optimistic and democratic look at network dynamics. Instead of highlighting the strengths of power over networks, she argues that power with—as in the powers embedded in the connections between nodes—unlocks the true potential of networks and their utility in international affairs. She emphasizes that phenomenon such as the Arab Spring and the Occupy movement (I’d throw BLM and #MeToo in there as well) are demonstrations of power with networks that overthrew hierarchical power over institutions but ultimately pittered out due to a lack of guidance. Hence, sparking and directing the power with networks will become a most powerful skill set that can be wielded in the international arena. Additionally, given the decentralized nature of this power, the effectiveness and usage of this power will run closely along democratic ideals.

However, the book doesn’t offer satisfying counters to current digital networks that are gatekept such as Facebook and China. Facebook definitely has lock-in power—no one wants to rebuild their social net on a new service—and naturally has power over the network and its users. Additionally, China’s Great Firewall and the trend towards a segregated Chinese Internet seem hard to overcome with many of the network tools Slaughter proposes. Furthermore, she gives half-baked and clichéd solutions to serious policy challenges. Writing about “bolstering the UN” and “educate students about networks” is a weak ending to a very thoughtful discussion of networks and policy.

 

What I’m Watching: Season 5 Episode 4 of Silicon Valley: “Tech Evangelist”

This episode was brilliant in parodying tech’s animosity towards religion all the while worshipping individuals such as Zuckerburg and Jobs. The below scenes show a brilliant progression.

Screen Shot 2018-04-21 at 22.06.22

First, Gavin Belson—the founder and CEO of fictional tech conglomerate Hooli—gets annoyed when his hands get sticky from using a honey bear to flavor his tea.

Screen Shot 2018-04-21 at 22.05.48

Then, when departing for a trip to Tahoe, he addresses the senior VPs with an out of context sentence.

Screen Shot 2018-04-21 at 22.04.58

The senior VPs proceed to freak out and try to decipher Gavin’s biblical words.

While Silicon Valley is just a TV show, this attitude isn’t absent in the valley or any other circle (be it finance, governance, etc.) for that matter. China’s deification of Xi Jinping or Facebook’s zealousness in following Mark Zuckerburg’s mission to connect the world is emblematic of this devotion to a cause/person/place/thing. The good thing about the real world, however, is that many subordinates aren’t as cowardly as the characters in the show. Andrew Bosworth, Facebook’s VP of Consumer Hardware, wrote a prescient memo (shown below in full) in 2016 about the potential dangers in Facebook’s drive for connectivity and the lack of conversations and thinking behind it.

Andrew Bosworth
June 18, 2016

The Ugly

We talk about the good and the bad of our work often. I want to talk about the ugly.

We connect people.

That can be good if they make it positive. Maybe someone finds love. Maybe it even saves the life of someone on the brink of suicide.

So we connect more people

That can be bad if they make it negative. Maybe it costs a life by exposing someone to bullies. Maybe someone dies in a terrorist attack coordinated on our tools.

And still we connect people.

The ugly truth is that we believe in connecting people so deeply that anything that allows us to connect more people more often is *de facto* good. It is perhaps the only area where the metrics do tell the true story as far as we are concerned.

That isn’t something we are doing for ourselves. Or for our stock price (ha!). It is literally just what we do. We connect people. Period.

That’s why all the work we do in growth is justified. All the questionable contact importing practices. All the subtle language that helps people stay searchable by friends. All of the work we do to bring more communication in. The work we will likely have to do in China some day. All of it.

The natural state of the world is not connected. It is not unified. It is fragmented by borders, languages, and increasingly by different products. The best products don’t win. The ones everyone use win.

I know a lot of people don’t want to hear this. Most of us have the luxury of working in the warm glow of building products consumers love. But make no mistake, growth tactics are how we got here. If you joined the company because it is doing great work, that’s why we get to do that great work. We do have great products but we still wouldn’t be half our size without pushing the envelope on growth. Nothing makes Facebook as valuable as having your friends on it, and no product decisions have gotten as many friends on as the ones made in growth. Not photo tagging. Not news feed. Not messenger. Nothing.

In almost all of our work, we have to answer hard questions about what we believe. We have to justify the metrics and make sure they aren’t losing out on a bigger picture. But connecting people. That’s our imperative. Because that’s what we do. We connect people.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the memo received tremendous internal backlash. But it does show that there are people who fight against theses cult-like followings. Be like Boz.

 

What I’m Listening To:

In light of Kanye’s announcement of two upcoming (hopefully; you never really know with him) projects, I’ve been revisiting some old favorites such as Devil In A New Dress.

 

Cool Thing of the Week:

In tribute to Avicii’s passing, a Dutch church played some of his tunes with the church bells.

 

Commonplace Book Entry of the Week: 

Innovation is different from invention. You can invent something but if you fail to bring it to market, that is not innovation. Innovation is that process from inventing something and making something to bringing it to a market and mass adoption.  

 

Catching Up — Six Bullet Sunday (4/15/2018)

What I’ve been reading:

This was probably one of my favorite reads of all time. The last graphic novel I read was Maus during middle school and, ironically, The Best We Could Do touches on many of the same issues. As in Maus, survival was the central struggle. In broad strokes, Thi Bui chronicles her family’s hardships during decades of turmoil in Vietnam and their eventual escape to the U.S. Yet it is her humanization of her family members—her parents especially—that hit me really hard. I, much like many others, hold my elders in very high regard, superhuman, really (after all, I am Chinese, and those are the rules). However, when one runs through the gauntlet of humanity’s worst, the true weaknesses and strengths of a person comes to bare. The survival of life, family cohesion, sanity, future prospects, and integrity are at stake. Most people don’t make it out of the country, the ones that do only partially so, and no one comes out fully intact. The experience makes and breaks people. Escaping is only the beginning. As for the road ahead, we make do the best we can.

 

These were fun bedtime reads. Come for the spies, stay for the tradecraft. Matthews really knows what he’s talking about in these pages. Who would’ve thought that forty years in the Agency would make you a great thriller novelist?

 

These were also fun bedtime reads (I read the three books in three nights, so perhaps more all-nighter reads). They are also hilariously accurate about outlandish Asian wealth and traditional norms. Many times I laughed at the mannerisms of characters and familial obligations they had to attend to, it was like reading about my own family, the parallels are uncanny. I certainly view the Asian experience through a particular set of lenses, so I’m most curious to hear from different perspectives about the old money/new money and traditional/ABC family dynamics dichotomies that undergird the stories.

 

What I’ve been watching:

The Vietnam War by Ken Burns

I’ve been slowly chipping away at the episodes and must say that it’s been a very sobering experience. The series portrays the issues through all stakeholders (American leaders, troops, anti-war protestors, families, NVA troops, VC troops, Vietnamese civilians, Vietnamese communist leadership) and does a damn good job at being impartial. Most importantly, it forces us to reckon with the brutality of war, of human nature, and most of all, of bad policy.

It is also quite hard not to draw parallels with the happenings of America today. We are involved in two open-ended and protracted wars that most Americans are underinformed about. There are racial tensions marked by bombastic right and left extremes that overshadow some of the more peaceful groups. The world as we understood it from the 90s to the late 2000s is undergoing massive shifts across the board. We have American troops who feel foreign among civilians and frustrated by politicians, civilians who can’t relate to troops and not heard by government leaders, and finally, politicians who seem to be trapped in the DC bubble and unable to confront the realities that hound troops and the public on a daily basis. We have had no foreign policy for many years (before people come to support Obama, I would like to point out that the guy proudly declared to have “ended two wars” at a fund-raiser while ISIS blazed across the Levant and the Taliban kicked the Afghan government’s butt) and can’t seem to rise above partisanship to get much done at home. So, if anyone is interested in how things played out the last time we had all these things happen, I highly recommend looking into this series. We came out fine the last time this happened—and Vietnam was arguably our worst blunder in history—we’d be fine this time as well, right?

 

What I’ve been listening to:

I found this thanks to the ending sequence of a recent Silicon Valley episode. I’m normally not an electronic music fan, but maybe my palate needed some laid back lyric-less refreshing. More importantly, the discovery of this album led to the discovery of Scott Vener, the man behind the soundtracks of many HBO projects and with the dope quote: “Good music doesn’t come out every day.”

Felt a little groovy and funky.

See above.

I’m a little disappointed by the project—probably due to the fact that I loved the first album. I didn’t hate any tracks but particularly like any either. Royce da 5’9″ had some nice bars and Rapsody’s feature was great (as is always expected from her), but honestly, a pretty forgettable album.

  • Frank Sinatra

Still heavy in the rotation… something about a nice and soothing voice that makes me happy. Also, baseball season started, so New York, New York will be played for the foreseeable future.

An interesting observation:

I drove by a lot of old people playing Pokémon Go in a park in Taipei when I was on spring break. This was quite surprising given that the AR game seemed to be a one summer fad from two years ago. However, upon closer reflection, the affinity between elderly Taiwanese people and these virtual creatures didn’t seem so outlandish. After all, the Sony AIBO dog that was so popular in the early 2000s recently made a comeback due to popular demand. In fact, many elderly Japanese consumers were quite distressed when the dog was originally discontinued in 2006—some even held funerals for their robo-canines when they stopped working.

While it could just be that Taiwan is just really slow with the times (Frozen-mania is still a thing), but I’d argue that the link between old Asian people and robot companions deserves a deeper look (future research project?). Who needs a fancy lab to conduct robot/AI-human interaction research? Just go take a stroll in the park.

Something I’ve been thinking about:

In light of all of everything happening in regards to Facebook, I thought Ben Evans wrote a brilliant and timely piece in The death of the newsfeedMany of the company’s recent troubles all lead back to the newsfeed: Russian trolls, filter bubbles, digital addiction, fake news, etc. The ruling solution to “fix” the newsfeed all center around regulation whether publicly “breaking up Facebook” (however that works) or asking them to privately “do a better job at combatting fake news”. Yet, neither of those really work, nor do they address the true underlying problem with the feature. Ironically, as Evans points out, the problem isn’t really with the newsfeed at all, but rather stems from the firehose of information that is the internet. The sheer volume of content is a persistent issue (see YouTube’s ISIS and child exploitation troubles or Twitter’s retention problems) and one with no immediate solution. Clearly, these very prevalent issues cannot be fixed by a clever design change or by hiring a bunch of Phillipino moderators. It is unfeasible for anyone to sift through all the billions of hours of content being created every day nor is it reasonable for people to demand that companies be able to do so. We also must consider the tradeoffs for any potential changes to the newsfeed or any other feed. It is easy to point out the flaws in the system, but rather hard to confront uncomfortable secondary effects that could arise from any change.

 

Favorite commonplace book entries:

  • Again, history will never reveal to us what connections there are, and at what times, between science, art, and morality, between good and evil, religion and the civic virtues. What it will tell us (and that incorrectly) is where the Huns came from, where they lived, who laid the foundations of their power, etc.

I’ve always been curious about why the connections mentioned in the quote are largely missing in academia and public discourse. Interdisciplinary and antidisciplinary work certainly don’t fit nicely in traditionally defined specializations. They almost certainly work against the concept of disciplines and taxonomies. We definitely have an easier time understanding categorized things, but also miss out on the gray areas. The gray areas also represent a vast uncharted plane of knowledge. And if one follows Metcalfe’s law, then the great unknowns hidden in those connections surpass the knowledge base in our current disciplines by manyfold. An intimidating prospect, no doubt, but if history is truly reliant on these intangibles then I wonder how much we are missing due to our conceptual structure of information storage.

  • It no longer applies in this dangerous century, but in a more civilized age, you would know what the Russians would do. You see, the Ruskies back then had been bloodied twice and hard. They wanted peace and would use strength to enforce it. In those distant cold times, the Russians would react professionally. They’d disappear into the depths, then before you even knew, they were off of your carrier group. They’d remind you who they were and what you were dealing with.

Makes you kinda miss those times where the boundaries and rules in international affairs weren’t so murky, eh?

Soviet_Golf_II-class_submarine_and_USS_Pharris_(FF-1094)_underway_off_Copenhagen_in_February_1978
Soviet Golf II class submarine escorted by USS Pharris in February 1978 (Wikimedia)

 

  • When my legs hurt, I say “Shut up, legs! Do what I tell you to do!” – Jens Voigt, German cycler

 

 

 

Six Bullet Saturday (2/24/2018)

What I’m playing with: After a few frustrating nights, I finally figured out how to work with FCC Form 477 and Census Block data. Great success for someone who’s scared of numbers and a baby still learning the ABCs of computer languages. Managed to put together a terrifying map of the Cleveland broadband situation:

Cuyahoga BlockMapFrame.pngClearly, something fishy going on here. The data is broken down by advertised download speed in Mbps as displayed on the side legend—dark is fast, light is slow. While the three dark red blocks are the most obvious, I think the white cluster on the top right of the map is most troubling. East Cleveland is the poorest neighborhood in the county and has noticeably worse access than its neighbors.

Hopefully, I get to explore with more of these in the coming weeks—partly for school, but mainly because I’m a nerd and this is fun. And yes, I know the National Broadband Map exists and has all the same information. But I didn’t sleep for two nights dammit! I’m proud of this little thing I created with bloodshot eyes, Stack Overflow queries, and many cups of tea.

What I’m listening to:Black Panther: The Album. Kendrick Lamar curated… need I say more? While definitely not his best project—Good Kid, M.A.A.D City, baby! —it is incredibly well produced and considering its purpose of supplementing the eponymous movie I’d say that the TDE crew did a phenomenal job. Favorite tracks: Opps (Vince Staples!), Bloody Waters, and Big Shot.

Instagram post of the week:

I still can’t believe ol’Musky decided to build a giant net on the back of a boat so that he can catch a piece of falling space rocket. But I guess given that this is his decision-making process then there should really be no surprise at all. What a madman, I love it.

Podcast episode of the week: Networks, Power, and Chaos – A Conversation with Niall Ferguson. It’s known that Niall is not the most well-liked person on either side of the political divide, but his conversation with Sam Harris provided an interesting and dispassionate interpretation of the 2016 election and Trump. Even if you’re not a fan of the network science stuff, the Donald analysis is still worth a listen. Main takeaways: networked phenomenon is nothing new, the Internet just scaled up the effects. The whole Russia interference/collusion thing? Not really the most important issue, nor will it lead to much (unless Mueller unearths some extremely incriminating evidence against Donald himself, which given what’s been revealed so far, probably not going to happen). The historical grounding of these issues should dispel some of the feelings of uncertainty/anxiety people are having with the president. It’s hard to view the world through an impartial lens but focusing on the fundamental factors driving trends can be more enlightening than the repetitive and self-reinforcing news articles that most of us are exposed to on a daily basis.

Highlight of the week: 12 Maroons dinner. The Student Alumni Association at UChicago held a few dinners bringing together two faculty members, an alum, and nine students to just have good conversation. And boy, this has been by far my best experience in college, this is exactly the sort of conversation, curious energy, and fun I came to Chicago for. We had some deep discussions on freedom of speech, blockchain, and the word “space” in addition to a wonderful recounting of the school’s history and administration dynamics. There was some pretty juicy stuff, but although I didn’t have to sign an NDA, I probably won’t talk about them here.

Commonplace book entry of the week: My grandparents could probably have told you how many electric motors they owned. There were one or two in the car, one in the fridge, one in the vacuum cleaner, and so on, and they owned maybe a dozen total. Today, we have no idea how many motors we have (or even how many are in a car), but we probably know how many things we own with a network connection or some kind of digital intelligence. There’s a phone, a tablet, and a laptop, and the TV, and… but again, our children will have no idea. It won’t be an interesting question. “How many smart devices do you have?” will be like asking how many incandescent light bulbs you have. — Smart homes and vegetable peelers, Benedict Evans.

In this thoughtful post, Ben explores the structure of the burgeoning home IoT market given his observations at the most recent CES. And I just love this preface, given the ways technology gets deployed I’ll eventually become the old man on the sofa scratching my head trying to figure out why I can’t find the box score for the Patriots game—obviously still quarterbacked by a youthful eighty-year-old Brady.

At its current state, it doesn’t seem that Alexa, Google Assistant, or Siri are going to achieve the same lock-in power that Google has on search or iOS and Android have on mobile. The marginal difference between the voice assistants is not as dramatic as Google over MSN Search or iOS and Android over the Windows Phone. Furthermore, voice still functions as a supplement and is tethered to the smartphone or speaker—acting more as a friction-removing intermediary to use IoT devices. Finally, accessories such as smart fridges, door locks, and toilets don’t have the same network effect that Facebook, Amazon Prime, or the iPhone have. The switch to these new physical assets requires a greater commitment than signing up for an online service, and really, how much better can the Samsung smart fridge be than your current dumb one? Lord Bezos’ world domination plans are on hold in the consumer IoT space… for now.

Six Bullet Saturday (2/3/2018)

What I’m reading: The Way to Design by Steve Vassallo. This was such a fun little book (its free! and only a little more than 100 pages) that revolves around how design can/should be integrated into projects, decision-making, and building culture.

For Vassallo, design is not merely another rung on the ladder for a product to climb before being shipped out for sale. No. Design is omnipresent across all silos and levels, from the company’s first hire to iterating the next flagship launch. Furthermore, good design incorporates systems thinking—unearthing the underlying relationships and assumptions causing specific phenomenon—to encourage more cycles of virtuous feedback or neutralize suboptimal behavior. I found that Joe Gebbia’s quote on building culture best summarizes the importance of good design: “Culture doesn’t make the people, it’s the people in your building that makes the culture. Which means spend as much time up front to get it right, to get the right people in, because it is much easier to mold concrete when it’s wet than to chip away at it when it’s dry.” It is easy to get caught up in the excitement and whirlwind of priorities but spending time during the early stages of any project to thoroughly think through the long-term consequences can pay exponential dividends down the road. Also, sorry people, there isn’t a price you can pay for consultants to “improve corporate culture”.

What I’m listening to: It’s been an odd combination this week of Nina Simone, OutKast, and Frank Sinatra. Take Care of BusinessSpottieOttieDopaliscious, and Wave headline this weeks mix.

Podcast episode of the week: Cal Fussman’s interview with Kobe Bryant. One of the world’s most intense competitors talks about his post-basketball career—which has already yielded an Oscar nomination—conquering fear, and the virtues of life-long learning.

What I’m (going to be) watching: Super Bowl 52. Go Pats!

Favorite video of the week: Someone strapped an 8K camera to the bottom of a LearJet, flew around, and got some wonderful bird’s eye view shots of the earth. Love the fractals.

Tweet of the week:

All hype and no bite.

Six Bullet Saturday (1/27/2018)

What I’m reading: An Odyssey: A Father, a Son, and an Epic by Daniel Mendelsohn. I found this book accidentally while browsing online for the original Odyssey by Homer for class. Through exploring the text together—first when his father attends an undergraduate seminar taught by the author, then on a Mediterranean cruise—the author is able to chip away at the mystique surrounding his closed-off father. I’ve only had the chance to go through the first chapter but am enamored by the complicated dance taking place between two family members who have difficulty opening up to each other. All wrapped-up in New Yorker-style prose, of course.

What I’m listening to: And the Beat Goes On by The Whispers. Funky.

What I’m watching: Nothing much, just the new Grand Tour episode—Jeremy Clarkson & co. being brilliant as always. Oh, and old reruns of The Office, because procrastinating is fun.

Cool thing of the week: Metro line colors of the world, also bonus comment:

Screen Shot 2018-01-27 at 7.40.59 PM

Tweet of the week:

But seriously, what Amazon doing is quite amazing/scary. They aren’t afraid to spend a lot of capital and give up short-term gains in exchange for future dominance. Plus, people love them, a real head-scratcher for regulators.

Commonplace book entry of the week:

During the Netflix earnings call this week, Chief Content Officer Theodore A. Sarandos said something pretty remarkable in response to a question about Bright’s lack of critical success:

“So, the way to reconcile it is, that critics are an important part of the kind of artistic process but are not — they’re pretty disconnected from the commercial prospects of a film.”

As Stratechery’s Ben Thompson puts it succinctly, “Goodbye gatekeepers”. However, I think more than just media, Sarandos’ quote is a rather fitting summary of a trend that started in 2017 and is spreading like wildfire. The Larry Nassar trial—a chronological continuation of Susan Fowler’s incredible courage and the Weinstein scandal—fake news and misinformation, and even Amazon Web Services have shown the true power and ramifications of the Internet. In the media sector, no longer do traditional critics and production companies have sway over the success of content or an aspiring actor/actress. Powerful companies and senior leaders are no longer immune from accountability with regards to sexual harassment. News and information are no longer flowing through controlled channels of distribution, but rather, are so abundant anyone and everyone can find their perfect niche. AWS lowers barriers to entry; any aspiring small business can have direct access to enterprise-grade software and management services—yes, I know the Amazon aspect of the equation is still very problematic. But still, it is truly incredible to see what has been unleashed. Empowerment on the individual level walks in lock-step with the decline of expertise—and whatever that may bode for society. The very real tradeoffs come packaged whether we like it or not and comes with bright shiny warnings of how we should rethink about the fundamental relationships underlying problems such as misinformation. There is no easy answer to how we solve these problems, neither is there a blueprint on how to conquer future ones. The nature of tradeoffs precludes this luxury but also encourages us to do the kind of long-term thinking people preach but don’t really do—especially not in governance spheres. And so, we march on.

 

Six Bullet Saturday (1/20/2018)

What I’m reading: Homegoing by Yaa Gyasi was awesome. The book tracks the divergent paths of a family from the Gold Coast of Western Africa through chapter-length short stories that switch between the perspectives of characters from successive generations. The narrative of the side of the family that moved—unwillingly, to put it nicely—to the U.S. was often times less compelling than the stories in Africa due to the somewhat forced attachment of certain African-American generational features onto characters. For example, Willie’s embodiment of the Great Migration, gospel music, and the brief flourishment of multiracial culture in parts of Southern labor towns felt unnecessarily constricting on her character growth. But, overall, Homegoing is a fantastic read that digs deep into issues of family and belonging and is a sobering reminder of ugly realities of the slave trade and its repercussions.

What I’m experimenting with: Toggl. Given my propensity to sit/stand idly in front of my laptop going through articles and videos, I thought it might be a good idea to start quantifying time spent. I’m only using the free, basic version of the app which simply acts as a timer to track screen time. The great part is that the app also keeps track of “idle time”—time without movement of the mouse or typing of the keyboard—so there won’t be an erroneous measure of laptop time when you take a twenty-minute bathroom break to watch five clips of Parks and Recreation on your phone. The end game for me is that I hope the daily tally will scare me enough to cut down on distractions, visualize how long it takes for me to complete certain tasks, as well as take care of my eyes better.

What I’m listening to (again): Strange Journey Volume Three by CunninLynguists. Dope album. In fact, it was my 2014 album of the year (2017’s was Big K.R.I.T.’s 4eva is a Mighty Long Time). Favorite tracks: South California, Innerspace, Guide You Through Shadows, Castles, Makes You Wanna Cry.

What I’m watching: Molly’s Game. A fascinating true story (spoilers!) of an ex-Olympic-caliber skier’s time running underground poker games for Hollywood and Wall Street elites. The movie is deeply thought-provoking—though a little preachy at parts—and I was particularly intrigued by its commentary on personal integrity and the dynamics between high-powered men and women.

Favorite video of the week: The New England Patriots’ Devin McCourty on Tom Brady’s hand injury.

Commonplace book entry of the week: “Train and bus stations were the sad places of the war, the limbs of lost souls. All those troops, far from their hometowns, and miserable-looking in their new uniforms, and the sad, young country girls, pregnant or holding babies, not looking around much, just standing, waiting. Lines everywhere. There was no place you could go that you didn’t have to stand in line first. Piles of duffel bags. And MPs with their white leggings and nigh sticks, patrolling, representing disciplines, being discipline in their stiff postures and their sharp uniforms. War could do worse things than this to plain people, but for a sense of the ordinary outrages of life in a country at war, the stations were the place to go.” – Samuel Hynes

How different a reality we live in today. As the longest war in U.S. history—Afghanistan—drags into its seventeenth year, this passage is a stark reminder of how good we have it today and how divergent civilian and military lives are. Yes, the scale and threat cannot be more different (uncertainty in the future of the world order vs. regional and ethnic grievances tracing back hundreds of years) but the harshness of war is in no way diminished. No wonder the yellow ribbon wearing crowds, NFL game ceremonies, and State of the Union stunts feel so empty. The men and women fighting a war with no tangible objectives are treated as cardboard idols for Americans to feel good about being American. Unsurprisingly, veterans returning home feel alienated, and the PTSD problem continues its destructive march, shattering lives and families. Civilians living in advanced societies—myself included—will never experience the very worst of human nature. The nature of modern war has negated our need to even taste hardship.